How to manage 4M change in the automotive industry?
Purpose of 4M change:
To record 4M Change (Operator change, machine change, tool change, material & method change) management for expected change ( New operator, operator on leave, machine/tool PM, New machine, new gauge & new instrument) and unexpected changes (Tool breakage, power failure, machine breakdown etc.) If any issue generates later, we can easily track the change detail through 4M change management.
- Purpose of 4M change:
- Scope of 4M change:
- Responsibility of 4M Change:
- Definition of Change :
- What is 4M Change Management?
- Plan Change (Expected Change):
- Un-plan Change (Unexpected Change):
- Benefits of 4M change recording:
- WI FOR 4M CHANGE:
- Man change examples in 4M change:
- Machine ( Tool ) change examples in 4M change:
- Material & Method change example in 4M change:
- 4M CHANGE TRACKING SHEET:
- 4M CHANGE CONTROL BOARD:
- MAN-MACHINE MATRIX :
- What is Retroactive Inspection in 4M change?
- 4M CHANGE APPROVAL REPORT:
Scope of 4M change:
Applicable for all internal changes in process & bought out parts (BOP)
Responsibility of 4M Change:
|1||Change Point Control Board||Supervisor||Daily|
|2||Change Approval||Plant Head / Quality Head||Daily|
Definition of Change :
Change related to a product or process is defined as the ‘man, material, machine and method used for’ is not as per control plan, work instruction, skill matrix and customer approval.
What is 4M Change Management?
4 M Change Management is the systematic approach to deal with the changes in Man, Material, Machine and Method.
Plan Change (Expected Change):
Change that occurs with prior information to the concerned person and defined action is taken to control the occurrence of non-conformity of product at the change point.
Example of Plan change :
- The machine under Plan Maintenance
- Tool under Plan Maintenance
- New operator employed on machine
- Operator working after a long leave
- New instrument used
- New machine used
Learn about Machine Maintenance & Tool Maintenance. procedures.
Un-plan Change (Unexpected Change):
Change that occurs without prior information to the concerned person and sudden defined action is required to control the occurrence of non-conformity of product at the change point.
Example of Un-plan change :
- Machine under Breakdown
- Tool / Die under Breakdown
- Tool breakage
- Power Failure
- Different grade materials used
- Unapproved material sources used
If any changes are done in Man, Machine, Material or Method related to the process happens, the change shall be immediately updated on the 4’M change monitoring board & recorded in the 4’M Change Tracking Sheet.
- The respective team informs to 4’M change responsible person about any kind of changes in man, material, method and machine which happen in his area.
- The change details of Man, Material, Method, and Machine are to be highlighted on the 4’M change control board.
- Identify man change as per the man-machine matrix.
- The 4’M change responsible person shall update the 4’M change tracking sheet within 30 minutes and take suitable action as per 4’M WI.
- If No change is there, the 4’M change responsible person shall fill the 4’M tracking sheet with green color and if there is a change he shall fill it with red color.
- In case of any change, information to be given to concerned departments and control action to be taken as per the WI.
Benefits of 4M change recording:
- Easy to trace defects at the supplier end.
- In the situation of recall at OEM, it also helps to detect defective products.
- It provides confidence to OEM and Tear1 company when it gets 4M change records timely from its supplier.
- Reduction in rejection, rework.
WI FOR 4M CHANGE:
Man change examples in 4M change:
- The operator on leave with information
- The operator on leave without information (start of shift)
- New operator working on machine
- The operator on long leave ( More than 45 days)
- The operator suddenly leave the workplace due to an accident
- The operator suddenly leave the workplace due to illness
In the above examples point no 1 to 4 are planned change and points no 5 to 6 are unplanned change. If we use the same skill level operator in all conditions, then it is OK & do setup approval only. But if we have to use underskilled operators then it becomes an abnormal situation. Then take containment action (100% visual inspection & 5 parts recording) also of that day.
In case of new operators provide training as per operation standards and take containment action of all production of that day. For unplanned changes, take retroactive inspection also of all parts from last inspection.
Machine ( Tool ) change examples in 4M change:
- The machine is under preventive maintenance.
- Machine under breakdown
- New machine installed
- Tool under preventive maintenance
- Tool under breakdown
- New tool used
Material & Method change example in 4M change:
- Material received from other approved source
- Material received from other unapproved sources
- Different grade materials used
- Process parameter change
- Layout change
- Process method change
4M CHANGE TRACKING SHEET:
In the Tracking sheet, we prepare a summary of all the changes in the process & their detail. It contains the date of change starts, Type of change, changes in the description, What action was taken during the change, Machine or tool detail, Part name, Retroactive record, Containment record & dispatch detail etc.
4M CHANGE CONTROL BOARD:
In the 4M change control board, we update all the changes in the process & their detail within 30 minutes of change. It contains the date & time of change starts, Type of change, changes in the description, What action was taken during change, Machine or tool detail, Part name, Retroactive check record, Containment record & dispatch detail etc.
MAN-MACHINE MATRIX :
It is the matrix of the operator and process (machine). By this matrix, the supervisor can easily find out which operator is capable of which process to operate the machine. It is also called a skill matrix.
What is Retroactive Inspection in 4M change?
Retroactive inspection is to check the suspected parts which are made before any unplanned change or any abnormal change happen.
The record of retroactive inspection is maintained in the below format. In this format, we record the total inspection quantity, OK quantity, and Rejected and rework quantities. Also maintain records of sample quantity as per decided in 4M change WI.
4M CHANGE APPROVAL REPORT:
It is the Approval of the process when any process is restarted after any change happened and inspecting the sample pieces for approval. Approval should be taken from Quality Head, Plant Head or customer.
RM CHANGE PROCESS