Steps of PPAP during new development | Production part approval process
Purpose of PPAP:
The purpose of PPAP is to provide evidence that all customer engineering design records & specifications requirements are properly understood by the organization. The manufacturing process has the potential to produce the product consistently meeting these requirements during an actual production run at the quoted production rate.
- Purpose of PPAP:
- What is Significant Production Run?
- 18 elements of PPAP:
- 1. Design Records :
- 2. Authorized Engineering Change Documents:
- 3. DFMEA :
- 4. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM (PFD) :
- 5. PFMEA
- 6. Control Plan ( CP) :
- 7. Measurement System Analysis Studies (MSA):
- 8. Dimensional Results :
- 9. Records of Material / Performance Tests :
- 10. Material Test Report :
- 11. Initial Process Studies (SPC):
- 12. Qualified Laboratory Documentation :
- 13. Appearance Approval Report :
- 14. Sample Production Parts :
- 15. Master Sample :
- 16. Checking Aids :
- 17. Customer-Specific Requirements :
- 18. Part Submission Warrant (PSW) :
- Submission Level during PPAP:
What is Significant Production Run?
The significant production run shall be from 1 hour to 8 hours of production. Also quantity produced can be a minimum of 300 consecutive parts or as specified by the customer. The significant production run shall be done at the production site with production tools, production material, production process & production operators.
18 elements of PPAP:
1. Design Records :
The Organization shall have the design record of the product. A printed copy of the latest drawing needs to be provided. “Each and every feature must be “ballooned”.
2. Authorized Engineering Change Documents:
A document that shows the detailed description of the change which was not included in the Drawing. Usually, this document is called “Engineering Change Notice” (ECN).
3. DFMEA :
A copy of the Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (DFMEA), if the supplier is responsible for design also. If the customer is responsible for designing the list of all critical or high-impact product characteristics should be shared with the supplier, so they can be addressed on the PFMEA and Control Plan.
4. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM (PFD) :
A copy of the Process Flow, indicating all steps and sequence in the production process, including incoming components. The organization shall have a process flow diagram in a specified format that clearly describe the production process steps & sequence
A copy of the Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (PFMEA). The PFMEA follows the Process Flow steps and indicates “what could go wrong” during the production and assembly of each component.
6. Control Plan ( CP) :
A copy of the Control Plan. The Control Plan follows the PFMEA steps and provides more details on how the “potential issues” are checked in the incoming quality, assembly process or during inspections of finished products.
7. Measurement System Analysis Studies (MSA):
MSA usually contains the Gage R & R for the critical or high impact characteristics and a confirmation that instruments used to measure these characteristics are calibrated. Also the appraiser (inspector) is skilled enough to inspect the parts.
8. Dimensional Results :
A list of every dimension noted on the ballooned drawing. This list shows the product characteristic, specifications, measurement results and the assessment showing if this dimension is “OK” or “Not OK”. Usually a minimum of 5 pieces is reported per product/process combination.
9. Records of Material / Performance Tests :
A summary of every test performed on the part. This summary lists each individual test, when it was performed, the specification, results and the assessment pass/fail.
10. Material Test Report :
The report for material samples is initially inspected.
11. Initial Process Studies (SPC):
Includes all Statistical Process Control charts affecting the most critical characteristics. The intent of SPC is to demonstrate that critical processes have stable variability and that is running near the intended nominal value & the process is capable/under control.
12. Qualified Laboratory Documentation :
Copy of all laboratory certifications of the laboratories that performed the tests.
13. Appearance Approval Report :
A copy of the AAI (Appearance Approval Inspection) form was signed by the customer. Applicable for components affecting appearance only.The appearance include information about the color, textures etc.
14. Sample Production Parts :
A sample from the same lot of initial production run. The PPAP package usually shows a picture of the sample and where it is kept (customer or supplier).
15. Master Sample :
A sample signed off by customer and supplier usually is used to train operators on subjective inspections such as visual.
16. Checking Aids :
When there are special tools and instruments for checking parts, this section shows a picture of the tool and calibration records, including the dimensional report of the tool.
17. Customer-Specific Requirements :
Each customer may have specific requirements (CSR) to be included in the PPAP package. It is a good practice to ask the customer for PPAP expectations before even quoting for a job
18. Part Submission Warrant (PSW) :
This is the form that summarizes the whole PPAP package. This form shows the reason for submission (design change, annual re-validation etc.) and the level of documents submitted to the customer. There is a section that asks for “results meeting all drawing and specification requirements: yes/no” refers to the whole package. If there are any deviations, the supplier should note on the warrant or inform that PPAP can not be submitted.
Submission Level during PPAP:
Below are the 5 Level of PPAP:
- Level 1: Part Submission Warrant only.
- Level 2: Warrant with product samples and limited supporting data submitted to the customer.
- Level 3: Warrant with product samples and complete supporting data submitted to the customer.
- Level 4: Warrant and other requirements as defined by the customer.
- Level 5: Warrant with product samples and complete supporting data reviewed at the manufacturing site.
Note: By default Submission Level 3 is to be submitted to the customer.
Check the story about 18 elements of PPAP.