Purpose of PPAP:
The purpose of PPAP is to provide evidence that all customer engineering design records & specifications requirements are properly understood by the organization. The manufacturing process has the potential to produce the product consistently meeting these requirements during an actual production run at the quoted production rate.
- Purpose of PPAP:
- What is a Significant Production Run?
- 19 elements of PPAP:
- 1. Design Records :
- 2. Authorized Engineering Change Documents:
- 3. Customer Engineering Approval:
- 4. DFMEA :
- 5. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM (PFD) :
- 6. PFMEA
- 7. Control Plan ( CP) :
- 8. Measurement System Analysis Studies (MSA):
- 9. Dimensional Results :
- 10. Records of Material / Performance Tests :
- 11. Material Test Report :
- 12. Initial Process Studies (SPC):
- 13. Qualified Laboratory Documentation :
- 14. Appearance Approval Report :
- 15. Sample Production Parts :
- 16. Master Sample :
- 17. Checking Aids :
- 18. Customer-Specific Requirements :
- 19. Part Submission Warrant (PSW) :
- Submission Level during PPAP:
- FAQ related to PPAP:
What is a Significant Production Run?
The significant production run shall be from 1 hour to 8 hours of production. Also quantity produced can be a minimum of 300 consecutive parts or as specified by the customer. The significant production run shall be done at the production site with production tools, production materials, production process & production operators.
19 elements of PPAP:
1. Design Records :
The Organization shall have the design record of the product. A printed copy of the latest drawing needs to be provided.
2. Authorized Engineering Change Documents:
A document that shows the detailed description of the change which was not included in the Drawing. But it is done in the product or any child part.
3. Customer Engineering Approval:
The organization shall have evidence of customer engineering approval when any revision is done internally or by the customer.
4. DFMEA :
A copy of the Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (DFMEA), if the supplier is responsible for the design also. If the customer is responsible for designing the list of all critical or high-impact product characteristics should be shared with the supplier, so they can be addressed on the PFMEA and Control Plan.
5. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM (PFD) :
A copy of the Process Flow, indicating all steps and sequences in the production process, including incoming components. The organization shall have a process flow diagram in a specified format that clearly describe the production process steps & sequence
A copy of the Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (PFMEA). The PFMEA follows the Process Flow steps and indicates “what could go wrong” during the production and assembly of each component.
7. Control Plan ( CP) :
A copy of the Control Plan. The Control Plan follows the PFMEA steps and provides more details on how the “potential issues” are checked in the incoming quality, assembly process or during inspections of finished products.
8. Measurement System Analysis Studies (MSA):
MSA usually contains the Gage R & R for the critical or high-impact characteristics and a confirmation that instruments used to measure these characteristics are calibrated. Also the appraiser (inspector) is skilled enough to inspect the parts.
9. Dimensional Results :
A list of every dimension noted on the ballooned drawing. This list shows the product characteristic, specifications, measurement results and the assessment showing if this dimension is “OK” or “Not OK”. Usually, a minimum of 5 pieces is reported per product/process combination.
10. Records of Material / Performance Tests :
A summary of every test performed on the part. This summary lists each individual test, when it was performed, the specification, results and the assessment pass/fail.
11. Material Test Report :
The report for material samples is initially inspected.
12. Initial Process Studies (SPC):
Includes all Statistical Process Control charts affecting the most critical characteristics. The intent of SPC is to demonstrate that critical processes have stable variability and that are running near the intended nominal value & the process is capable/under control.
13. Qualified Laboratory Documentation :
Copy of all laboratory certifications of the laboratories that performed the tests.
14. Appearance Approval Report :
A copy of the AAI (Appearance Approval Inspection) form was signed by the customer. Applicable for components affecting appearance only. The appearance includes information about the color, textures etc.
15. Sample Production Parts :
A sample from the same lot of initial production run. The PPAP package usually shows a picture of the sample and where it is kept (customer or supplier).
16. Master Sample :
A sample signed off by the customer and supplier usually is used to train operators on subjective inspections such as visual.
17. Checking Aids :
When there are special tools and instruments for checking parts, this section shows a picture of the tool and calibration records, including the dimensional report of the tool.
18. Customer-Specific Requirements :
Each customer may have specific requirements (CSR) to be included in the PPAP package. It is a good practice to ask the customer for PPAP expectations before even quoting for a job
19. Part Submission Warrant (PSW) :
This is the form that summarizes the whole PPAP package. This form shows the reason for submission (design change, annual re-validation etc.) and the level of documents submitted to the customer. There is a section that asks for “results meeting all drawing and specification requirements: yes/no” which refers to the whole package. If there are any deviations, the supplier should note on the warrant or inform that PPAP can not be submitted.
Submission Level during PPAP:
Below are the 5 Levels of PPAP:
- Level 1: Part Submission Warrant only.
- Level 2: Warrant with product samples and limited supporting data submitted to the customer.
- Level 3: Warrant with product samples and complete supporting data submitted to the customer.
- Level 4: Warrant and other requirements as defined by the customer.
- Level 5: Warrant with product samples and complete supporting data reviewed at the manufacturing site.
Note: By default Submission Level 3 is to be submitted to the customer.
FAQ related to PPAP:
- What does PPAP stand for and what is its purpose?
- What are the five levels of PPAP submission and what is included in each level?
- What are the key elements of a PPAP document?
- Why is PPAP important in the automotive industry?
- How is PPAP related to quality control and assurance?
- What is the difference between a PPAP and an APQP process?
- Who is responsible for conducting a PPAP submission and when should it be performed?
- How do you determine which level of PPAP submission is required for a specific product?
- What are some common errors that can occur during a PPAP submission and how can they be avoided?
- How does PPAP relate to regulatory compliance and certification requirements in the automotive industry?
- PPAP stands for Production Part Approval Process. Its purpose is to ensure that suppliers provide high-quality parts that meet the specifications and requirements of the customer, particularly in the automotive industry.
- The five levels of PPAP submission are Level 1 to Level 5. Level 1 is a part submission warrant (PSW) only, while Level 2 adds product samples and limited supporting data. Level 3 adds more comprehensive data, including control plans and process flow diagrams. Level 4 adds a complete measurement system analysis (MSA), and Level 5 includes a full production run to demonstrate that the supplier can consistently meet specifications.
- The key elements of a PPAP document include the PSW, design records, material certifications, process flow diagrams, control plans, measurement system analysis (MSA), and dimensional results.
- PPAP is important in the automotive industry because it ensures that suppliers provide parts that meet the specifications and requirements of the customer, which is critical for safety and reliability in automotive manufacturing.
- PPAP is a critical element of quality control and assurance because it establishes a standardized process for evaluating and approving parts before they are used in production.
- PPAP is a specific step within the larger APQP (Advanced Product Quality Planning) process. APQP involves planning and implementing a comprehensive quality control system for a new product or process, while PPAP specifically involves submitting and approving parts for production.
- The supplier is responsible for conducting a PPAP submission, which should be performed before parts are put into production or shipped to the customer.
- The level of PPAP submission required for a specific product is typically determined by the customer, who will specify the level in their purchase order or supplier requirements document.
- Some common errors that can occur during a PPAP submission include incomplete documentation, incorrect data, and lack of compliance with specific requirements. To avoid these errors, suppliers should carefully review all requirements and documentation before submitting their PPAP, and work closely with the customer to address any issues that arise.
- PPAP is a critical element of regulatory compliance and certification requirements in the automotive industry, as it demonstrates that the supplier has met specific quality standards and can consistently provide high-quality parts. PPAP is often required by industry standards such as IATF 16949 and is also often requested by customers as part of their supplier requirements.