Terms and definitions for automotive industry
As per IATF 16949 standard, “Terms and definitions” is the third clause. Terms and definitions are that used in this standard in different clauses. So below are the main terms and definition with some simple explanation.
- Customer specific requirement ( CSR) :
- Control Plan:
- Challenge (Master) Part:
- Accessory Part:
- Aftermarket Parts:
- Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) :
- Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) :
- Escalation Process :
- Error Proofing :
- Laboratory Scope:
- Outsourced Process:
- Predictive Maintenance:
- Preventive Maintenance:
- Periodic overhaul:
- Total Productive Maintenance :
- Special characteristic :
- Premium Freight :
Customer specific requirement ( CSR) :
These are the specific requirements by the customer. These can be based on supplier quality manual provided by the customer. For examples, 4M change control, packing specification, process capability requirement , counter measure report etc.We can make a matrix for all customers and their requirements.
Control plan is the documented description of the systems and processes required for controlling the manufacturing of product. It contains Product and process parameters of all the processes from RM receipt to dispatch.
Challenge (Master) Part:
Parts of known specification, calibrated and traceable to standards, with OK or NG results that are used to validate the functionality of an error proofing device or check the fixtures.
Customer specified additional components that are either mechanically or electronically connected to the vehicle. e.g. Wheel covers,sound system enhancements, super charger, floor mats etc.
These are the replacement parts not purchased or released by an OEM for service part application. These parts may or may not be produced to original equipment specification.
Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) :
It is the combination two methodology: Design for manufacturing (DFM) & Design for assembly (DFA). DFM is the process of optimizing the design to be easier to produce. It has higher throughput and improved quality. DFA is optimization of the design to make it easier to assemble, to reduce risk of error and lowering costs.
Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) :
APQP serves as a guide in the development process and also a standard way to share result between organizations and their customers. APQP covers design robustness, design testing and specification compliance,process design, quality inspection standard, process capability, packaging, product testing and operator training plan etc.
Escalation Process :
It is a process used to highlight or flag certain issue within an organization so that the appropriate personal can respond to these situations and monitor the resolution. It is also called whistle blowing policy.
Error Proofing :
It is the product and manufacturing process design and development to prevent manufacture of non conforming product. It is also called Poka yoke.
Facility for inspection, test or calibration that may include but is not limited to the following : chemical, metallurgical, dimensional, physical, electrical or mechanical testing.
It is a document that contains list of specific test and calibration that a laboratory can do. Also list of master equipment that the laboratory uses to perform the test or calibration. Also it contains a list of method and standard that the laboratory follow to perform above activity.
Outsource process is the part of an organization processes that is performed by an external organization. e.g. Plating, powder coating, hardening etc
It is a set of technique to evaluate the condition of in service equipment by performing periodic or continuous monitoring of equipment condition. So that we can predict when machine maintenance should be done. In this we can check vibration, noise, temperature and oil analysis etc.
It is the maintenance of equipment as per plan (time based) and as per defined preventive maintenance check sheet. Purpose of preventive maintenance is to prevent breakdown of equipment and improve OEE.
It is a maintenance methodology to prevent a major unplanned breakdown where based on fault or interruption history. In this a part of equipment is proactively taken out of service and disassembled, repaired, part replaced, reassembled and then return to service.
Total Productive Maintenance :
TPM is a system of maintaining and improving the integrity of production and quality systems through machines, equipment, processes and employees that add value to the organization.
Special characteristic :
It is the classification of a product characteristic or manufacturing process parameter that can affect safety or compliance with regulations, fit, function, performance requirement.
Premium Freight :
Premium freight is the extra cost incurred in addition to the contracted delivery. This can be due to method, quantity, late delivery.
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