Terms and definitions for the automotive industry
As per IATF 16949 standard, “Terms and definitions” is the third clause. Terms and definitions are that used in this standard in different clauses. So below are the main terms and definitions with some simple explanations.
- Customer-specific requirement ( CSR) :
- Control Plan:
- Challenge (Master) Part:
- Accessory Part:
- Aftermarket Parts:
- Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) :
- Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) :
- Escalation Process :
- Error Proofing :
- Laboratory Scope:
- Outsourced Process:
- Predictive Maintenance:
- Preventive Maintenance:
- Periodic overhaul:
- Total Productive Maintenance :
- Special characteristic :
- Premium Freight :
Customer-specific requirement ( CSR) :
These are the specific requirements of the customer. These can be based on the supplier quality manual provided by the customer. For example, 4M change control, packing specification, process capability requirement, countermeasure report etc. We can make a matrix for all customers and their requirements.
The control plan is the documented description of the systems and processes required for controlling the manufacturing of the product. It contains Product and process parameters of all the processes from RM receipt to dispatch.
Challenge (Master) Part:
Parts of known specification, calibrated and traceable to standards, with OK or NG results that are used to validate the functionality of an error-proofing device or check the fixtures.
The customer specified additional components that are either mechanically or electronically connected to the vehicle. e.g. Wheel covers, sound system enhancements, supercharger, floor mats etc.
These are the replacement parts not purchased or released by an OEM for service part application. These parts may or may not be produced to the original equipment specification.
Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) :
It is the combination of two methodologies: Design for manufacturing (DFM) & Design for assembly (DFA). DFM is the process of optimizing the design to be easier to produce. It has higher throughput and improved quality. DFA is the optimization of the design to make it easier to assemble, to reduce the risk of error and lower costs.
Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) :
APQP serves as a guide in the development process and also a standard way to share results between organizations and their customers. APQP covers design robustness, design testing and specification compliance, process design, quality inspection standard, process capability, packaging, product testing and operator training plan etc.
Escalation Process :
It is a process used to highlight or flag specific issues within an organization so that the appropriate personnel can respond to these situations and monitor the resolution. It is also called a whistleblowing policy.
Error Proofing :
It is the product and manufacturing process design and development to prevent the manufacture of non-conforming products. It is also called the Poka-yoke.
Facility for inspection, test or calibration that may include but is not limited to the following: chemical, metallurgical, dimensional, physical, electrical or mechanical testing.
It is a document that contains a list of specific tests and calibrations that a laboratory can do. Also list of master equipment that the laboratory uses to perform the test or calibration. Also, it contains a list of methods and standards that the laboratory follows to perform the above activity.
Outsource process is the part of an organization’s processes that are performed by an external organization. e.g. Plating, powder coating, hardening etc
It is a set of techniques to check the condition of the equipment by performing periodic or continuous monitoring of equipment conditions. So that we can predict when machine maintenance should be done, in this, we can check vibration, noise, temperature and oil analysis etc.
You may like to know about the List of Mandatory Procedures as per IATF 16949.
It is the maintenance of equipment as per plan (time-based) and as per the defined preventive maintenance check sheet. The purpose of preventive maintenance is to prevent the breakdown of equipment and improve OEE.
It is a maintenance methodology to prevent a major unplanned breakdown where based on fault or interruption history. In this a part of the equipment is proactively taken out of service and disassembled, repaired, part replaced, reassembled and then return to service.
Total Productive Maintenance :
TPM is a system of maintaining and improving the integrity of production and quality systems through machines, equipment, processes and employees that add value to the organization.
Special characteristic :
It is the classification of a product characteristic or manufacturing process parameter that can affect safety or compliance with regulations, fit, function, and performance requirements. These are as Fit, Function, Formation, Safety, Appearance & Legal.(FFFSAL)
Premium Freight :
Premium freight is the extra cost paid by the company than decided during PPAP. This can be due to method, quantity or late delivery.
Reference: IATF 16949:2016 Standard
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